many publications issued at stated intervals, such as academic journals (including scientific journals), or the record of the transactions of a society, are often called journals. In academic use, a journal refers to a serious, scholarly publication that is peer-reviewed. A non-scholarly magazine written for an educated audience about an industry or an area of professional activity is usually called a trade magazine.
The word "journalist", for one whose business is writing for the public press and nowadays also other media, has been in use since the end of the 17th century.
The newspaper mainly has a middle-class and professional readership throughout North East England, covering a mixture of regional, national and international news. It also has a daily business section and sports page as well as the monthly Culture magazine and weekly property supplement Homemaker.
News coverage about farming is also an important part of the paper with a high readership in rural Northumberland.
It was the named sponsor of Tyne Theatre on Westgate Road during the 2000s, until January 2012.
The first edition of the Newcastle Journal was printed on 12 May 1832, and subsequent Saturdays, by Hernaman and Perring, 69 Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. On 12 May 2007, The Journal celebrated its 175th Anniversary and 49,584th issue.
An adit (from Latin aditus, entrance) is an entrance to an underground mine which is horizontal or nearly horizontal, by which the mine can be entered, drained of water, ventilated, and minerals extracted at the lowest convenient level. Adits are also used to explore for mineral veins.
Adits are driven into the side of a hill or mountain, and are often used when an ore body is located inside the mountain but above the adjacent valley floor or coastal plain. In cases where the mineral vein outcrops at the surface, the adit may follow the lode or vein until it is worked out, in this case the adit is rarely straight. The use of adits for the extraction of ore is generally called drift mining.
Adits can only be driven into a mine where the local topography permits. There will be no opportunity to drive an adit to a mine situated on a large flat plain, for instance. Also if the ground is weak, the cost of shoring up a long adit may outweigh its possible advantages.
The 491 Gallery was a squattedsocial centre and multi-disciplinary gallery in Leytonstone, London, England, that operated from 2001 to 2013. Taking its name from its street number, 491 Grove Green Road, the former factory was home to a community-led art organisation and served as an exhibition space for a diverse range of artists of different origins working in varied media. It contained a range of art and music studios, which were used to host workshops, classes and musical rehearsals.
The building, originally a factory, was later used as a storage space and warehouse for materials being used to construct the A12 that cuts through Leytonstone and the surrounding areas. Unlike the rest of the surrounding buildings, it and the few neighbouring houses were not subject to compulsory purchase orders and demolition for the A12 site. When in late 2000 the building was abandoned, it became occupied by a group of homeless drug users, who remained in it for some six months. Within a month of their vacating the premises, the building was reoccupied by a group of artists, who spent the next several years turning it into a community space. The neighbouring building, formerly houses, was also occupied, and named Vertigo, after the film by Alfred Hitchcock, a famous resident of Leytonstone.
01 Gallery (or Zero One Gallery) is a contemporary art gallery located in downtown Los Angeles, California, U.S., founded by art dealer and curator John Pochna. The gallery is known for its contributions to the lowbrow art movement, as it frequently exhibits pieces with heavy graffiti and street art influences. In April 2007, Pochna partnered with Brandon Coburn, and Jim Ulrich.
Founded in 1980 and christened Zero Zero by Pochna, the gallery was originally an after hours bar in Melrose. The gallery's current name derives from a conceptual understanding of the creative process. As Kyle Lina explains, "Zero is when there's nothing--one when there's something. The space between the zero and the one is the creative act".
Over time, 01 Gallery developed a long standing relationship with the Los Angeles punk community, as it has debuted bands such as The Screamers. As the gallery's clientele diversified, Pochna's aims for the gallery evolved. Pochna states, "[We're] not a punk rock gallery, not a graffiti art gallery, not a rebel gallery. Not any of those stupid names they used to call us."